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The Apostles
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    • Apostles - The Catholic Encyclopedia [View Study]
    • Acts of the Apostles - The Catholic Encyclopedia [View Study]
    • Apostle - Wikipedia [View Study]
    • The Twelve Apostles: The Foundation Of The Church [View Study]
    • The Ancient Church of the Apostles: Revisiting Jerusalem’s Cenacle and David’s Tomb [View Study]
    • The Life and Teachings of Jesus and His Apostles [View Study]
    • The Calendar of Christ and the Apostles [View Study]
    • Acts Of The Apostles: A Study Guide With Introductory Comments, Summaries, And Review Questions [View Study]
    • Meet the Apostles: Biblical and Legendary Ac-counts [View Study]

    Definition

    The Apostles (from Greek: someone sent forth, envoy, messenger) are the twelve chosen early followers (disciples) of Jesus who carried the Christian message (Gospel) into the world.

    Introduction

    According to the Synoptic Gospels (Mark 3:13-19, Matthew 10:1-4, Luke 6:12-16), the Twelve chosen by Jesus near the beginning of his ministry, those whom also He named Apostles, were:

    Apostle Name
    Other Names
    Hebrew / Aramaic Name
    Milestones
    Peter Nicknamed Cephas (Aramaic = rock) by Jesus, Petros (Greek=rock) שמעון most prominent of the Twelve Apostles, listed first in the Gospels, and traditionally the first bishop of Rome; fisherman born in Bethsaida.
    Andrew Andreas (Greek=manly, brave) אנדרי brother of Peter; disciple of John the Baptist before nominated Apostle by Jesus; fisherman born in Bethsaida; traditionally he did missionary work in Asia Minor, Macedonia, and about the Black Sea.
    James son of Zebedee together with his brother Apostle John nicknamed "Boanerges" (Greek=Sons of Thunder) by Jesus; James "the Greater" to distinguish him from Apostle James "the Less" (James son of Alphaeus) יעקב בן זבדי brother of Apostle John; beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in 44 AD; traditionally preached Christianity in Spain where he is called Santiago and believed buried in Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    John son of Zebedee together with his brother Apostle James nicknamed "Boanerges" (Greek=Sons of Thunder) by Jesus יוחנן בן זבדי traditional author of the Gospel According to John; three letters, and the Book of Revelation.
    Philip   פיליפוס participated in the miracle of the loaves and fishes (John 6:5–9); came from Bethsaida
    Bartholomew Nathanael ? בר־תלמי (son of Talmai) Traditionally, Bartholomew served as a missionary to India and have been martyred by flaying by the Armenian king Astyages.
    Matthew Levi מתי (Gift of the LORD) was a tax collector from Capernaum before Jesus call; the Gospel according to Matthew has been almost certainly incorrectly attributed to him.
    Thomas Judas (Jude) Thomas Didymus (Didymus, Greek=twin) תומא (Aramaic=twin) doubts the resurrection of Jesus and demands to feel Jesus' wounds before being convinced. This story is the origin of the term "Doubting Thomas" (John 20:24–29). The noncanonical Gospel of Thomas is traditionally attributed to him.
    James son of Alphaeus James "the Less" to distinguish him from Apostle James "the Greater" (James son of Zebedee) יעקב בן־חלפי his mother, Mary, one of the women present at Jesus' crucifixion and tomb (Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56). Sometimes Identified with James, brother of Jesus.
    Simon the Cananaean Simon the Zealot שמעון הקני possible association with the sect of Zealots (nationalistic movement in first century Judaism); probably his name comes from the Aramaic, qan' anaya, meaning “the Zealot"
    Jude Thaddaeus, Lebbaeus, Judas תדי should not be confused with Judas Iscariot; after the Last Supper asks Jesus, “Lord, how is it that you will manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?” (John: 14:22). Not likely he was Judas called "the brother of Jesus" or the author of the Letter of St. Jude.
    Judas Iscariot   יהודה איש קריות betrayed Jesus, for which he was paid the sum of thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 27: 9-10).
    Not included in the Twelve choosen by Jesus.
    Matthias   מתיה chosen by the remaining eleven apostles to replace Judas Iscariot, following Judas' betrayal of Jesus and his suicide (Acts 1:21-26).
    Paul Saul, Paul of Tarsus שאול התרסי though not one of the Twelve, Paul is many times considered in Christianity as an Apostle; played an important part in extending Christianity beyond the limits of Judaism to become a worldwide religion.; the undisputed Pauline epistles (letters) contain the earliest systematic account of Christian doctrine and faith, and provide information on the life of the infant Church.

    The Gospel of Mark states that Jesus initially sent out these twelve in pairs (Mark 6:7-13, Luke 9:1-6), to towns in Galilee. Literal readings of the text state that their initial instructions were to heal the sick and drive out demons, and in the Gospel of Matthew to raise the dead, but some scholars read this more metaphorically as instructions to heal the spiritually sick and thus to drive away wicked behaviour. They are also instructed to: "take nothing for their journey, except a mere staff - no bread, no bag, no money in their belt - but to wear sandals; and He added, "Do not put on two coats." And that if any town rejects them they ought to shake the dust off their feet as they leave, a gesture which some scholars think was meant as a contemptuous threat. Their carrying of just a staff (Mathew and Luke say not even a staff) is sometimes given as the reason for the use by Christian Bishops of a staff of office, in those denominations that believe they maintain an apostolic succession.

    Later in the Gospel narratives the 12 Apostles are described as having been commissioned to preach the Gospel to the world, regardless of whether Jew or Gentile. Although the Apostles are portrayed as having been Galilean Jews, and most of their names are Aramaic, a few names are Greek, suggesting a more metropolitan background.

    The three Synoptic Gospels record the circumstances in which some of the disciples were recruited.

    Simon (Peter) and Andrew are, according to Matthew, the first two apostles to be appointed, and Matthew identifies them as fishermen. Both Andrew and Peter are names of Greek origins - a reflection on the multicultural nature of Galilee at this time. It is also notable that Peter is identified by Paul in his letters as Cephas, which is the Aramaic equivalent of the Greek Peter, both words meaning "rock". Simon however is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Shimeon, a common Jewish name found referring to several other individuals in contemporary works such as Josephus as well as in the Old Testament.

    Despite Jesus only briefly requesting that Simon and Andrew join him, the two are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets to do so. Traditionally the immediacy of their consent was viewed as an example of divine power, although this statement isn't made in the text itself. The alternative and much more ordinary solution is that Jesus was simply friends with the individuals beforehand, as implied by the Gospel of John, which states that Andrew and an unnamed other had been a disciple of John the Baptist, and started following Jesus as soon as Jesus had been baptized. As a carpenter (Mark 6:3), it is eminently plausible for Jesus to have been employed to build and repair fishing vessels, thus having many opportunities to interact with and befriend such fishermen.

    Albright and Mann extrapolate from Simon and Andrew abandonment's of their nets, that Matthew is emphasizing the importance of renunciation by converting to Christianity, since fishing was profitable, though required large start-up costs, and abandoning everything would have been an important sacrifice. Regardless, Simon and Andrew's abandonment of what were effectively their most important worldly possessions was taken as a model by later Christian ascetics. [1]

    Matthew describes Jesus meeting James and John, also fishermen and brothers, very shortly after recruiting Simon and Andrew. While Matthew identifies James and John as sons of Zebedee, who is also present in their ship, Mark makes no such proclamation. Luke adds to Matthew and Mark that James and John worked as a team with Simon and Andrew. Matthew states that at the time of the encounter, James and John were repairing their nets, but readily joined Jesus without hesitation. This parallels the accounts of Mark and Luke, but Matthew implies that the men have also abandoned their father (since he is present in the ship they abandon him behind them), and Carter [2] feels this should be interpreted to mean that Matthew's view of Jesus is one of a figure rejecting the traditional patriarchal structure of society, where the father had command over his children; most scholars, however, just interpret it to mean that Matthew intended these two to be seen as even more devoted than the other pair.

    The synoptics go on to describe that much later, after Jesus had later begun his ministry, Jesus noticed, while teaching, a tax collector in his booth. The tax collector, Levi according to some Gospels, Matthew according to others, is asked by Jesus to become one of his disciples. Matthew/Levi is stated to have accepted and then invited Jesus for a meal with his friends. Tax collectors were seen as villains in Jewish society, and the Pharisees (a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era) are described by the synoptics as asking Jesus why he is having a meal with such disreputable people. The reply Jesus gives to this is now well known: "it is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick ... I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners" (Mark 2:17).

    In his writings, Saul, later known as Paul, though not one of the Twelve, described himself as an apostle, one "born out of time" (Romans 1:1), claimed he was appointed by the resurrected Jesus himself during his Road to Damascus vision; specifically he referred to himself as the Apostle to the Gentiles (Romans 11:13, Galatians 2:8). He also described some of his companions as apostles (Barnabas, Silas, Apollos, Andronicus and Junia) and even some of his opponents as super-apostles (2 Corinthians 11:5, 12:11). As the Catholic Encyclopedia states: "It is at once evident that in a Christian sense, everyone who had received a mission from God, or Christ, to man could be called 'Apostle'"; thus extending the original sense beyond the original Twelve. Since Paul claimed to have received the Gospel through a revelation of Jesus Christ ( Acts 9:3-19, 26-27) after the latter's death and resurrection, (rather than before like the Twelve) , he was often obliged to defend his apostolic authority, "Am I not an apostle?" (1 Corinthians 9:1) and proclaimed that he had seen and was anointed by Jesus while on the road to Damascus; but James, Peter and John in Jerusalem accepted his apostleship to the Gentiles (specifically those not circumcised) as of equal authority as Peter's to the Jews (specifically those circumcised) according to Paul in Galatians 2:7-9. "James, Peter and John, those reputed to be pillars ... agreed that we (Paul and Barnabas) should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews." (Galatians 2:9) Paul, despite his self-designation as an Apostle, considered himself inferior to the other Apostles because he had persecuted Christ's followers (1 Corinthians 15:9). Many historians maintain that Paul and Peter certainly disagreed on the extent of Paul's authority as an Apostle, with Peter maintaining Paul was not one of those chosen by Jesus, or by his chosen after his death. Nevertheless, the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church consider Paul an Apostle; they honor Paul and Peter together on June 29. Paul sometimes replaces Matthias in classical depictions of "The Twelve Apostles," although he has also been called the "Thirteenth Apostle" because he was not a member of the original Twelve (unlike the replacement Matthias) but is still considered an apostle.

    Notes

    1.Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
    2. Carter, Warren. "Matthew 4:18-22 and Matthean Discipleship: An Audience-Oriented Perspective." Catholic Bible Quarterly. Vol. 59. No. 1. 1997.

    Links

    Apostle - Columbia Encyclopedia
    Apostle - Britannica
    Apostles - Catholic Encyclopedia
    Fishing at the Time of Jesus - americancatholic.org




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