See also Machine and Computer Vision
FireWire is Apple Inc.'s brand name for the IEEE 1394 interface. It is
also known as i.Link (Sony’s name) or IEEE 1394 (although the 1394
standard also defines a backplane interface). It is a personal computer
(and digital audio/digital video) serial bus interface standard,
offering high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data
- 1D. One dimensional.
- 2D computer graphics.
The computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from
two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital
images) and by techniques specific to them.
- 3D computer graphics. 3D computer graphics are different from 2D computer graphics in that a three-dimensional
representation of geometric data is stored in the computer for the
purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such
images may be for later display or for real-time viewing. Despite these
differences, 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire frame model and 2D computer raster graphics
in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, the
distinction between 2D and 3D is occasionally blurred; 2D applications
may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, and
primarily 3D may use 2D rendering techniques.
- 3D scanner.
This a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to
collect data on its shape and possibly color. The collected data can
then be used to construct digital, three dimensional models useful for
a wide variety of applications.
Optically, defocus refers to a translation along the optical axis away
from the plane or surface of best focus. In general, defocus reduces
the sharpness and contrast of the image. What should be sharp,
high-contrast edges in a scene become gradual transitions.
In context of photography or machine vision, aperture refers to the
diameter of the aperture stop of a photographic lens. The aperture stop
can be adjusted to control the amount of light reaching the film or
- aspect ratio (image). The aspect ratio of an image is its displayed width divided by its height (usually expressed as "x:y").
- Barcode. A barcode (also bar code) is a machine-readable representation of information in a visual format on a surface.
- Blob discovery.
Inspecting an image for discrete blobs of connected pixels (e.g. a
black hole in a grey object) as image landmarks. These blobs frequently
represent optical targets for machining, robotic capture, or
A raster graphics image, digital image, or bitmap, is a data file or
structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or
points of color, on a computer monitor, paper, or other display device.
A camera is a device used to take pictures, either singly or in
sequence. A camera that takes pictures singly is sometimes called a
photo camera to distinguish it from a video camera.
- Charge-coupled device.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a sensor for recording images,
consisting of an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or
coupled, capacitors. CCD sensors and cameras tend to be more sensitive,
less noisy, and more expensive than CMOS sensors and cameras.
- CIE 1931 Color Space. In the study of the perception of color, one of the first mathematically defined color spaces was the CIE XYZ color space (also known as CIE 1931 color space), created by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1931.
CMOS stands for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, is
a major class of integrated circuits. CMOS imaging sensors for machine
vision are cheaper than CCD sensors but more noisy.
The perception of the frequency (or wavelength) of light, and can be
compared to how pitch (or a musical note) is the perception of the
frequency or wavelength of sound.
- Color blindness.
Also known as color vision deficiency, in humans is the inability to
perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can
- Color temperature.
"White light" is commonly described by its color temperature. A
traditional incandescent light source's color temperature is determined
by comparing its hue with a theoretical, heated black-body radiator.
The lamp's color temperature is the temperature in kelvins at which the
heated black-body radiator matches the hue of the lamp.
- Color vision. CV is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect or emit.
- computer vision.
The study and application of methods which allow computers to
"understand" image content or content of multidimensional data in
In visual perception, contrast is the difference in visual properties
that makes an object (or its representation in an image)
distinguishable from other objects and the background.
Standardized adapter for optical lenses on CCD - cameras. C-Mount
lenses have a back focal distance 17.5mm vs. 12.5mm for "CS-mount"
lenses. A C-Mount lens can be used on a CS-Mount camera through the use
of a 5mm extension adapter. C-mount is a 1" diameter, 32 threads per
inch mounting thread (1"-32UN-2A.)
- CS-Mount. Same as C-Mount
but the focal point is 5mm shorter. A CS-Mount lens will not work on a
C-Mount camera. CS-mount is a 1" diameter, 32 threads per inch mounting
- Data matrix. A two dimensional Barcode.
- Depth of field.
In optics, particularly photography and machine vision, the depth of
field (DOF) is the distance in front of and behind the subject which
appears to be in focus.
- Depth perception. DP is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher animals. Depth perception allows the beholder to accurately gauge the distance to an object.
In optics, a diaphragm is a thin opaque structure with an opening
(aperture) at its centre. The role of the diaphragm is to stop the
passage of light, except for the light passing through the aperture.
- Edge detection. ED marks the points in a digital image at which the luminous intensity changes sharply.
- Electromagnetic interference.
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which
is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as
a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted
signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits.
FireWire (also known as i. Link or IEEE 1394) is a personal computer
(and digital audio/video) serial bus interface standard, offering
high-speed communications. It is often used as an interface for
- Frame grabber. A frame grabber is a component of a computer system designed for digitizing analog and digital video signals
- Field of view.
The field of view (FOV) is the part which can be seen by the machine
vision system at one moment. The field of view depends from the lens of
the system and from the working distance between object and camera.
An image, or image point or region, is said to be in focus if light
from object points is converged about as well as possible in the image;
conversely, it is out of focus is light is not well converged. The
border between these conditions is sometimes defined via a circle of
- Gamut. In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.
A grayscale digital image is an image in which the value of each pixel
is a single sample. Displayed images of this sort are typically
composed of shades of gray, varying from black at the weakest intensity
to white at the strongest, though in principle the samples could be
displayed as shades of any color, or even coded with various colors for
A graphical user interface (or GUI, sometimes pronounced "gooey") is a
method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct
manipulation of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
- Histogram. In statistics, a histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies.
A histogram is the graphical version of a table which shows what
proportion of cases fall into each of several or many specified categories. The histogram differs from a bar chart in that it is the area
of the bar that denotes the value, not the height, a crucial
distinction when the categories are not of uniform width (Lancaster,
1974). The categories are usually specified as non-overlapping intervals of some variable. The categories (bars) must be adjacent.
- Histogram (Color). In computer graphics and photography, a color histogram is a representation of the distribution of colors in an image, derived by counting the number of pixels of each of given set of color ranges in a typically two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) color space. A histogram is a standard statistical description of a distribution in terms of occurrence frequencies of different event classes; for color, the event classes are regions in color space.
- HSV color space. The HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) model, also called HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness), defines a color space in terms of three constituent components:
- Hue, the color type (such as red, blue, or yellow)
- Saturation, the "vibrancy" of the color and colorimetric purity
- Value, the brightness of the color
- Image file formats.
Image file formats provide a standardized method of organizing and
storing image data. This article deals with digital image formats used
to store photographic and other image information. Image files are made
up of either pixel or vector (geometric) data, which is rasterized to
pixels in the display process, with a few exceptions in vector graphic
display. The pixels that make up an image are in the form of a grid of
columns and rows. Each of the pixels in an image stores digital numbers
representing brightness and color.
- Infrared imaging. See Thermographic camera.
- Incandescent light bulb. An incandescent light bulb generates light using a glowing filament heated to white-hot by an electrical current.
- ISO_9000. ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies.
- JPEG. JPEG (pronounced jay-peg) is a most commonly used standard method of lossy compression for photographic images.
In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific
mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification
by stimulated emission of radiation.
A lens is a device that causes light to either converge and concentrate
or to diverge, usually formed from a piece of shaped glass. Lenses may
be combined to form more complex optical systems as a Normal lens or a Telephoto lens.
Lighting refers to either artificial light sources such as lamps or to
natural illumination. Choosing the accurate lighting for a machine
vision system needs lot of experience.
- Metrology. Metrology is the science of measurement. There are lots of applications for machine vision in metrology.
- machine vision. MV is the application of computer vision to industry and manufacturing.
- Motion perception.
MP is the process of inferring the speed and direction of objects and
surfaces that move in a visual scene given some visual input
- Neural network.
A NN is an interconnected group of artificial neurons that uses a
mathematical or computational model for information processing based on
a connectionist approach to computation. In most cases an ANN is an
adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or
internal information that flows through the network.
- Normal lens.
In machine vision a normal or entrocentric lens is a lens that
generates images that are generally held to have a "natural"
perspective ( nearer objects appear larger, and farther objects
smaller) compared with lenses with longer or shorter focal lengths.
Lenses of shorter focal length are called wide-angle lenses, while
longer focal length lenses are called telephoto lenses.
- Optical character recognition.
Usually abbreviated to OCR, involves computer software designed to
translate images of typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner)
into machine-editable text, or to translate pictures of characters into
a standard encoding scheme representing them in (ASCII or Unicode).
- Pattern recognition.
This is a field within the area of machine learning. Alternatively, it
can be defined as the act of taking in raw data and taking an action
based on the category of the data. It is a collection of methods for
- Pixel. A pixel is one of the many tiny dots that make up the representation of a picture in a computer's memory or screen.
In computer graphics, pixelation is an effect caused by displaying a
bitmap or a section of a bitmap at such a large size that individual
pixels, small single-colored square display elements that comprise the
bitmap, are visible to the eye.
- Prime lens. Mechanical assembly of lenses whose focal length is fixed, as opposed to a zoom lens, which has a variable focal length.
- Q-Factor (Optics). In optics, the Q factor of a resonant cavity is given by
where fo is the resonant frequency, is the stored energy in the cavity, and is the power dissipated. The optical Q is equal to the ratio of the resonant frequency to the bandwidth of the cavity resonance. The average lifetime of a resonant photon in the cavity is proportional to the cavity's Q. If the Q factor of a laser's cavity is abruptly changed from a low value to a high one, the laser will emit a pulse of light that is much more intense than the laser's normal continuous output. This technique is known as Q-switching.
- Region of interest.
A Region of Interest, often abbreviated ROI, is a selected subset of
samples within a dataset identified for a particular purpose.
The RGB color model utilizes the additive model in which red, green,
and blue light are combined in various ways to create other colors.
- ROI. See Region of Interest.
S-video. Separate video, abbreviated S-Video and also known as Y/C (or erroneously, S-VHS and "super video") is an analog video signal that carries the video data as two separate signals (brightness and color), unlike composite video which carries the entire set of signals in one signal line. S-Video, as most commonly implemented, carries high-bandwidth 480i or 576i resolution video, i.e. standard definition video. It does not carry audio on the same cable.
A shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period
of time, for the purpose of exposing the image sensor to the right
amount of light to create a permanent image of a view.
- Shutter speed.
In machine vision the shutter speed is the time for which the shutter
is held open during the taking an image to allow light to reach the
imaging sensor. In combination with variation of the lens aperture,
this regulates how much light the imaging sensor in a digital camera
- Smart camera.
A smart camera is an integrated machine vision system which, in
addition to image capture circuitry, includes a processor, which can
extract information from images without need for an external processing
unit, and interface devices used to make results available to other
- Structured light.
This is the process of projecting a known pattern of pixels (often
grids or horizontal bars) on to a scene. The way that these deform when
striking surfaces allows vision systems to calculate the depth and
surface information of the objects in the scene.
Super Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA or
just SVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display
- Telecentric lens.
Compound lens with an unusual property concerning its geometry of
image-forming rays. In machine vision systems telecentric lenses are
usually employed in order to achieve dimensional and geometric
invariance of images within a range of different distances from the
lens and across the whole field of view.
- Telephoto lens. Lens whose focal length is significantly longer than the focal length of a normal lens.
- Thermography. Its is thermal imaging, a type of Infrared imaging.
- TIFF. Tagged Image File Format (abbreviated TIFF) is a file format for mainly storing images, including photographs and line art.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) provides a serial bus standard for
connecting devices, usually to computers such as PCs , but is also
becoming commonplace on cameras.
- VESA. The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) is an international body, founded in the late 1980s by NEC Home Electronics and eight other video display adapter manufacturers. The initial goal was to produce a standard for 800x600 SVGA resolution video displays. Since then VESA has issued a number of standards, mostly relating to the function of video peripherals in IBM PC compatible computers.
- VGA. Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM
- Wide-angle lens.
In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens is a lens whose
focal length is shorter than the focal length of a normal lens.
A form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of
10 to 0.01 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 to
3000 PHz (1015 hertz). X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic medical
and industrial imaging as well as crystallography. X-rays are a form of
ionizing radiation and as such can be dangerous.
- Y-cable. A Y-cable or Y cable is a self describing name of a type of cable
containing three ends of which one is a common end that in turn leads
to a split into the remaining two ends. When looked upon, a Y-cable can
resemble the Latin letter "Y". Y-cables are typically, but not necessarily, short (less than 12 inches), and often the ends connect to other cables. Uses may be as simple as splitting one audio or video channel into two, to more complex uses such as splicing signals from a high density computer connector to its appropriate peripheral .
- Zoom lens.
A mechanical assembly of lenses whose focal length can be changed, as
opposed to a prime lens, which has a fixed focal length. See an
animation of the zoom principle below.
Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License and Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.)